The creation of archaeology collection of the Town Museum in Sombor started in 1883, the same year when the Historical Society of the Bách–Bodrog District was established. The results of archeological excavations made on various locations during the 25 years of its existence were published in “Godišnjak”. Having inherited the archeological collection of the Historical Society, the Town Museum in Sombor continued the long–lasting archeological work. Approximately 15.000 articles, important for the study of Sombor’s history and its surrounding area from the prehistoric period until the Late Middle Ages, were gathered during the last 120 years.
The archaeological collection of the Museum contains archaeological osteological material. It is the evidence of continuous life from the Neolithic period, around 6000 BC — the formation of the Starčevo — Kereš (Koros) culture, the earliest agronomic culture in this region , until the last phase of the La Tene period — the Late Iron Age, when the Romans endeavored to control the Danube in its entire length.
The proximity of the Danube and the Mostonga River lured various migrating nations to build temporary or permanent settlements here. They brought their cultures and customs. Some less powerful populations, unable to impose their culture, assimilated with stronger autochthon inhabitants. Nevertheless, they left traces of their presence, testified by archaeological finds.
The archaeological material reflects the dynamic succession of the peoples and cultures on the territory of Bačka in the period between the first settlers — Neolithic farmers and the arrival of the Roman legions on the Danube in the 1 st century, when the territory on present–day Vojvodina entered the historical period. Until the 4th century Bačka was populated by various Sarmatian tribes, wich frequently fought against Romans. Nevertheless, in peaceful times trade played a very important role. Owing to this we can explain some Roman coins and other articles found in the Sarmatian graves. In the period between the 4th and the 9th century present–day Bačka had the same destiny as the Pannonian plain. Barbarian tribes of different nationalities, German and Sarmatian (the Ghots, the Ghepids, the Alans), Asian nomads (the Huns, the Avars), the Slavs and the Hungarians succseeded one another. Archaeological legacy of this period is known of solely on the basis of the finds fromnumerious graves (Bački Monoštor, Kolut, Bogojevo, Bač, Čonoplja, Rančevo, Odžaci). In the course of the 11th century Hungary was a powerful country on the territory of the Pannonian plain. Present–day Bačka was in the Hungarian sphere of interest, whereas Bač and Bodrog were the administrative centres of the administrative units — districts. Among medieval settlements there is a note of Szent Mihály where Sombor’s roots are supposed to be. A few fortifications in its vicinity are mentioned, as well (Sonta, Kolut, Bodrog, Bartan near Bački Monoštor). The Church was being organised simultaneously with the state organisation. the monastery in Bački Monoštor is one of the few Romanic and sacral edifices in Vojvodina.