The Archaeological department consists of movable archaeological goods separated into four collections that are being continually enriched with new items from the territory of the north–western and south–western Bačka. The chronological framework of the fund covers a period from the Mesolithic to the Modern period. The items mainly originate from the protected archaeological excavations, systematic excavations, terrain reconnaissance and partly through gifts and purchases.
The Archaeological collection of the Sombor City Museum originates partly from the period of the activity of the Historical society of Bač–Bodrog county (1883—1918) and partly from the period of restored museum activity after 1945. A rich fund of archaeological items that witness the dynamic shift of cultures and peoples at the territory of the City of Sombor and municipalities of Apatin, Kula and Odžaci was collected.
The Prehistoric collection of the Museum preserves the archaeological and osteological materials that witness the continual duration of life starting from the Monolithic period, via the occurrence of the oldest agricultural culture of this area — the Starčevo — Kereš (Кörös) culture, all the way through the last phase of the La Tène period (the Early Iron Age) and the turbulent period when the Romans were trying to conquer the entire course of the Danube River, from its source to its mouth.
Ancient history collection
The territory of today’s Bačka and Banat was inhabited by various Sarmatian tribes from the 1st to the 4th century. With the arrival of the Sarmatians, the population of Iranian and South Russian origin, to the territory of Bačka, significant ethnic and economic changes occur. Settling on that territory, the Sarmatians were, on one side, under a strong influence of the autochthonous Dacian and Celt population, while, on the other side, the Roman Empire strived to protect their own interests and expand their borders. The relationship between the Romans and the Sarmatians were changeable and drifted from frequent wars to occasional allied–mercenary relations in the brief periods of armistice, when vivid mutual live trade developed, which is testified by Roman money and other items that were found in Sarmatian settlements and necropoli. A massive influx of those tribes to the areas of Bačka and Banat happened during the 2nd century, therefore, the most frequent necropoli are those who testify about the period from the 3rd to the 4th century. The settlements were most frequently located on the shores of former rivers and streams. As additions to the graves, pearl necklaces, dishes of rough and fine structure laid next to the feet of the head of the deceased, bracelets and ear rings made of bronze wire, torques (made of bronze or silver wire with open ends) and fibulas (mainly plates) were most frequently found, and most frequently decorated by enamel of various color with geometric and zoomorphic ornaments. The material culture of the Sarmatians is reflected in the items most frequently found in graves in Bajmok, Svetozar Miletić, Ruski Krstur, Vrbas, Kula, Stanišić…
The Medieval collection covers the items of material culture from the mid–6th century to the early 19th century, which were collected in various archaeological excavations performed at various necropoli and within a partially researched objects of Medieval settlements. The collection holds a significant repertoire of movable archaeological, anthropological and archaeozoological items. Besides those, it is enriched by a great number of items of the terrain inventory and study materials.
The archaeological Medieval material varies both in function and the material used to make it. Those are parts of the preserved grave inventory of the researched necropoli or belong to settlement material. The most prominent are ceramic materials; besides various dishes, hand–made or made using potter’s wheel, frequent materials were ceramic loom weights, pipes, tiles and similar. Metal items feature products of blacksmith and goldsmith workshops that are separated into special collections of jewellery, utensils, tools, weaponry and horse equipment. The items made of bones and horns, glass paste, glass and semi–precious stones occur within special archaeological units.
The Numismatic collection is a part of a long–standing tradition of collecting money, the legacy of Dr Imre Fraj from 1952 containing 11.142 money denominations, which was particularly enriched and formed as single representative numismatic collection. Today it counts more than 20.000 items, i.e., 11.326 inventoried coins and around 6.500 numismatic study material.